Knowledge is key to creating a positive environmental impression for future generations

Abrupt Climate Change
Sudden, large variations in some major component of the climatic system, with rapid, widespread effects. Suddenness/abruptness happens in the order of decades.

Absolute Emissions
Absolute emissions are the emissions quantified for an organisation (or country) and it is the proper measure of GHGs, used by measuring standards and protocols. For instance, if an organisation states that it produced 1 million tonnes of CO2 in 2012, it is reporting its absolute emissions. In the case of CARBON CONTROL™, the Scope 1 and Scope 2 emissions of the organisation are considered in the absolute emissions calculations. (The optional Scope 3 emissions are not included.) While calculating absolute emissions is relatively straightforward, the calculations involve defining boundaries; quantifying activities which cause GHG emissions; and the determination of the appropriate conversion factors (or emission factors).

Absolute Target (CARBON CONTROL™ annual reduction targets)
A target defined by a reduction in absolute emissions over time, e.g., if an organisation is complying with the CARBON CONTROL™ Standard, the organisation must reduce absolute carbon emissions by an average of 3 percent annually from when they were first awarded the CARBON CONTROL™ Mark of approval.

Adjusting aspects of natural or human systems (e.g., behaviour, policies, technology, etc) in reaction to actual or predicted changes in our planets environment due to climate change.

Adaptive Capacity
A systems ability to adjust to climate change (as well as climate variability and extremes) to moderate potential damages, to use opportunities, or to manage with the consequences.

An approved criteria for achieving reductions in GHG emissions, by using project-based activities (e.g., those under CDM, or offset projects for carbon trading, etc), that exceeds those reductions which would have happened without a project under business-as-usual.

Tiny particles or liquid drops in our planets atmosphere that absorb or reflect sunlight depending on their physical composition.

Growing trees and forests on bare land.

The quantity of solar radiation that is reflected from an object or surface, usually denoted by a percentage.

The mechanism where GHG emissions allowances are initially distributed under a GHG emissions trading system. Emissions allowances may initially be distributed in a variety of ways.
In GHG markets, an allowance is authorisation to emit a specific quantity of GHG emissions each year (e.g., allowance is usually 1 tonne of CO2 equivalent). The total amount of allowances allocated to all organisations (be it government or corporation for example) in a GHG emissions trading system is determined by the magnitude of the overall limit on GHG emissions.

Alternative Energy
This includes energy that is derived from non-traditional sources (e.g., CNG, solar, hydro-electric power, wind).

Annex I Countries/Parties
Countries/parties listed in Annex I (as amended in 1998) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, along with all the developed countries in the Organisation of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and transition economies. Annex 1 members commit to the goal of returning individually or jointly to their 1990 levels of GHG emissions.

Anthropogenic Emissions
GHGs emitted by human activities (e.g., burning fossil fuels, deforestation, and land-use alterations that result in increases in GHG emissions.

Assessment Process/ Form (CARBON CONTROL™ Energy Management Assessment Form).
Based on internationally accepted standards, the CARBON CONTROL™ Energy Management Assessment Form sets out energy management requirements for improved energy efficiency, reduced energy usage and lower carbon emissions. The independent auditor assesses the organisations energy management system using the CARBON CONTROL™ Energy Management Assessment Form. The auditor will provide guidance to the organisation on meeting the CARBON CONTROL™ energy management system requirements. Where an organisations energy management system has already been independently approved, such as for ISO 50001, the requirements set out in the CARBON CONTROL™ Energy Management Assessment Form may be accepted as having been met. This can avoid duplicating work already undertaken

Layer of gases that surrounds our planet (Approximately 480 km in thickness - majority gases include nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide).

Atmospheric Lifetime
The average time that a molecule stays in the atmosphere before it is withdrawn through a chemical reaction or deposition. It is also described as the time that it takes after the human-induced emission of a gas (for the concentrations of that gas) in our planets atmosphere to return to its natural levels. GHG lifetimes may range from a few years to thousands of years.

The mechanism for the distribution of GHG allowances in an emissions trading system which involves the allowances being sold to the highest bidder.

Audit/Auditing Process
The CARBON CONTROL™ approved independent auditor will audit the organisations emissions for the previous twelve months using the CARBON CONTROL™ Emissions Performance Tool. For organisations new to CARBON CONTROL™ this first audit is to establish a base year. For organisatons that are entering their second or subsequent years the approved independent auditor will determine, using the CARBON CONTROL™ Emissions Performance Tool , if they have achieved a 3% annual reduction in their carbon emissions in line with the CARBON CONTROL™ emissions reduction criteria.

A nationally and/or internationally accredited independent certified body/party approved by CARBON CONTROL™ which generally offers a portfolio of international management system certifications and other management standards (e.g., ISO standards) and inspection services to organisations locally and or globally.